A Study of Millimeter Variability in FUor Objects

FU Orionis objects (FUors) are rapidly accreting, pre-main-sequence objects that are known to exhibit large outbursts at optical and near-infrared wavelengths, with post-eruption, small-scale photometric variability superimposed on longer-term trends. In contrast, little is known about the variability of FUors at longer wavelengths. To explore this further, we observed six FUor objects using the NOrthern Extended Millimeter Array (NOEMA) and for a subset of three objects we obtained coordinated observations with NOEMA and the Lowell Discovery Telescope. In combination with previously published NOEMA observations from 2014, our 2017 observations of V1735 Cyg provide the first detection of variability in an … Read more »

Grain Growth in Newly Discovered Young Eruptive Stars

FU Orionis-type stars are young stellar objects showing large outbursts due to highly enhanced accretion from the circumstellar disk onto the protostar. FU Orionis-type object (FUor) outbursts happen in a wide variety of sources from the very embedded ones to those with almost no sign of extended emission beyond the disk. The subsequent eruptions might gradually clear up the obscuring envelope material and drive the protostar on its way to become a disk-only T Tauri star. We used the Very Large Telescope (VLT)/VLT spectrometer and imager for the mid-infrared (VISIR) to obtain the first spectra that cover the 8-13 μm … Read more »

Measuring Turbulent Motion in Planet-forming Disks with ALMA: A Detection around DM Tau and Nondetections around MWC 480 and V4046 Sgr

Turbulence is a crucial factor in many models of planet formation, but it has only been directly constrained among a small number of planet-forming disks. Building on the upper limits on turbulence placed in disks around HD 163296 and TW Hya, we present ALMA CO J = 2-1 line observations at ∼0″3 (20-50 au) resolution and 80 ms-1 channel spacing of the disks around DM Tau, MWC 480, and V4046 Sgr. Using parametric models of disk structure, we robustly detect nonthermal gas motions around DM Tau of between 0.25cs and 0.33cs, with the range dominated by systematic effects, making this one of … Read more »

Outbursts in Global Protoplanetary Disk Simulations

While accreting through a circumstellar disk, young stellar objects are observed to undergo sudden and powerful accretion events known as FUor or EXor outbursts. Although such episodic accretion is considered to be an integral part of the star formation process, the triggers and mechanisms behind them remain uncertain. We conducted global numerical hydrodynamics simulations of protoplanetary disk formation and evolution in the thin-disk limit, assuming both magnetically layered and fully magnetorotational instability (MRI)-active disk structure. In this paper, we characterize the nature of the outbursts occurring in these simulations. The instability in the dead zone of a typical layered disk … Read more »

The Surprisingly Low Carbon Mass in the Debris Disk around HD 32297

Gas has been detected in a number of debris disks. It is likely secondary, I.e., produced by colliding solids. Here, we report ALMA Band 8 observations of neutral carbon in the CO-rich debris disk around the 15-30 Myr old A-type star HD 32297. We find that C0 is located in a ring at ∼110 au with an FWHM of ∼80 au and has a mass of (3.5 ± 0.2) × 10-3 M⊕. Naively, such a surprisingly small mass can be accumulated from CO photodissociation in a time as short as ∼104 yr. We develop a simple model for gas production and destruction in … Read more »

Magnetic field and accretion in EX Lup

While the Sun is a quiet and well-balanced star now, during its first few million years it possessed a strong magnetic field and actively accreted material from its circumstellar environment. Theoretical models predict that under certain circumstances the interaction of a strongly magnetic star and its circumstellar disk may lead to short bursts of increased accretion onto the star (D’Angelo & Spruit 2012). Examples for this phenomenon may be the members of a group of young eruptive stars called EXors. Their prototype, EX Lup, had its historically largest outburst in 2008. Spectroscopic evidence suggests that the mass accretion proceeds through … Read more »

V346 Nor: The Post-outburst Life of a Peculiar Young Eruptive Star

FU Orionis-type objects (FUors) are young low-mass stars undergoing powerful accretion outbursts. The increased accretion is often accompanied by collimated jets and energetic, large-scale molecular outflows. The extra heating during the outburst may also induce detectable geometrical, chemical, and mineralogical changes in the circumstellar material, affecting possible planet formation around these objects. V346 Nor is a southern FUor with peculiar spectral characteristics. Decades after the beginning of its outburst, it unexpectedly underwent a fading event around 2010 due to a decrease in the mass accretion rate onto the star by at least two orders of magnitude. Here we present optical … Read more »

An UXor among FUors: extinction-related brightness variations of the young eruptive star V582 Aur

The early evolution of Sun-like stars may be interspersed by energetic FU Orionis (FUor) type accretion outbursts. We analysed eight years of photometric and spectroscopic variability of V582 Aur, a bona fide FUor, in outburst. While the accretion rate derived from near-infrared measurements was constant, radical brightness changes occurred due to dust clumps crossing the line of sight. The brightness minima resemble the variability patterns of the UXor phenomenon. Orbiting density enhancements or short-lived clumps moving in and out of the line-of-sight may explain these observations. Our message is that during FUor outbursts the inner disk is a dynamically active … Read more »

Brightness variations of young Sun-like stars from ground-based and space telescopes

Young stellar objects often show photometric variability, which is well examined at optical wavelengths, but more and more infrared data are also available. The wavelength dependence of the variability carries information on the physical cause of the changing brightness. Here, we examine seven T Tauri-type stars known for their large amplitude variability selected from the Campaign 13 field of the Kepler K2 mission. We complemented the K2 light curves by multifilter optical monitoring observations made with the 90 cm Schmidt telescope of Konkoly Observatory, and by 3.6 and 4.5 μm infrared photometry with a 20 hours cadence using the Spitzer … Read more »

Konkoly optical catalog of young stars for the Gaia Photometric Science Alerts

Our aim is to present a new and so far most complete catalog of optically selected young stars. The basis of this work is an extensive literature search for young stars in all the known nearby (< 2 kpc) star forming regions, included in the Handbook of Star Forming Regions [4, 5], and in 67 additional catalogs. We collected data on known young, pre-main-sequence stars detected in optical bands. The catalog contains the celestial coordinates, object names, names of the enclosing star forming region, identification methods, distances, and other information (e.g., references, binarity) for 15208 young stellar objects. It is … Read more »