The disk of FU Orionis viewed with MATISSE/VLTI. First interferometric observations in L and M bands

Aims: We studied the accretion disk of the archetypal eruptive young star FU Orionis with the use of mid-infrared interferometry, which enabled us to resolve the innermost regions of the disk down to a spatial resolution of 3 milliarcseconds (mas) in the L band, that is, within 1 au of the protostar.Methods: We used the interferometric instrument MATISSE/VLTI to obtain observations of FU Ori’s disk in the L, M, and N bands with multiple baseline configurations. We also obtained contemporaneous photometry in the optical (UBVRIr’i’; SAAO and Konkoly Observatory) and near-infrared (JHKs; NOT). Our results were compared with radiative transfer … Read more »

A Gap at 1 au in the Disk of DI Cha A Revealed by Infrared Interferometry

DI Cha A is K0-type pre-main-sequence star, the brightest component of a quadruple stellar system. Here we report on a detailed study of this star based on archival VLTI/MIDI and VLTI/PIONIER infrared interferometric observations, as well as optical-infrared photometric monitoring from ground-based and space-born instruments. We determined the structure of the circumstellar disk by fitting simultaneously the interferometric visibilities and the spectral energy distribution, using both analytical models and the radiative transfer code RADMC-3D. The modeling revealed that the radial density distribution of the disk appears to have a gap between 0.21 and 3.0 au. The inner ring, whose inner … Read more »

Ancillary science with ARIEL: feasibility and scientific potential of young stellar object observations

To investigate the feasibility of ancillary target observations with ESA’s ARIEL mission, we compiled a list of potentially interesting young stars: FUors, systems harbouring extreme debris discs and a larger sample of young stellar objects showing strong near/mid-infrared excess. These objects can be observed as additional targets in the waiting times between the scheduled exoplanet transit and occultation observations. After analyzing the schedule for ARIEL an algorithm was constructed to find the optimal target to be observed in each gap. The selection was mainly based on the slew and stabilization time needed to observe the selected YSO, but it also … Read more »

Accretion variability from minute to decade timescales in the classical T Tauri star CR Cha

Context. Classical T Tauri stars are pre-main-sequence stars that are surrounded by a circumstellar disk from which they accrete material. The mass accretion process is essential in the formation of Sun-like stars. Although often described with simple and static models, the accretion process is inherently time variable.Aims: We examine the accretion process of the low-mass young stellar object CR Cha on a wide range of timescales from minutes to a decade by analyzing both photometric and spectroscopic observations from 2006, 2018, and 2019.Methods: We carried out a period analysis of the light curves of CR Cha from the TESS mission … Read more »

The Young Binary DQ Tau Produces Another X-Ray Flare Near Periastron

This work is part of a multi-wavelength program to study the effects of X-ray/UV/optical stellar radiation on the chemistry of the circumbinary disk around the young high-eccentricity binary DQ Tau. ALMA observations for near/around 2021 December 5 periastron were postponed due to bad weather, but supporting Swift-XRT-UVOT TOO observations were successful. These Swift observations along with previous X-ray-optical-mm data show that DQ Tau keeps exhibiting powerful flares near periastron, offering a unique laboratory for studies of flare effects on the gas-phase ion chemistry in protoplanetary disks.

The Accretion Process in the DQ Tau Binary System

Mass accretion from the circumstellar disk onto the protostar is a fundamental process during star formation. Measuring the mass accretion rate is particularly challenging for stars belonging to binary systems, because it is often difficult to discriminate which component is accreting. DQ Tau is an almost equal-mass spectroscopic binary system where the components orbit each other every 15.8 days. The system is known to display pulsed accretion, i.e., the periodic modulation of the accretion by the components on eccentric orbit. We present multi-epoch ESO/Very Large Telescope X-Shooter observations of DQ Tau, with the aim of determining which component of this … Read more »

Recurrent Strong Outbursts of an EXor-like Young Eruptive Star Gaia20eae

We present follow-up photometric and spectroscopic observations, and subsequent analysis of Gaia20eae. This source triggered photometric alerts during 2020 after showing a ~3 mag increase in its brightness. Its Gaia Alert light curve showed the shape of a typical eruptive young star. We carried out observations to confirm Gaia20eae as an eruptive young star and classify it. Its pre-outburst spectral energy distribution shows that Gaia20eae is a moderately embedded Class II object with L bol = 7.22 L ⊙. The color-color and color-magnitude diagrams indicate that the evolution in the light curve is mostly gray. Multiple epochs of the Hα line profile suggest … Read more »

The ODYSSEUS Survey. Motivation and First Results: Accretion, Ejection, and Disk Irradiation of CVSO 109

The Hubble UV Legacy Library of Young Stars as Essential Standards (ULLYSES) Director’s Discretionary Program of low-mass pre-main-sequence stars, coupled with forthcoming data from Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array and James Webb Space Telescope, will provide the foundation to revolutionize our understanding of the relationship between young stars and their protoplanetary disks. A comprehensive evaluation of the physics of disk evolution and planet formation requires understanding the intricate relationships between mass accretion, mass outflow, and disk structure. Here we describe the Outflows and Disks around Young Stars: Synergies for the Exploration of ULLYSES Spectra (ODYSSEUS) Survey and present initial results of … Read more »

Evolution of dust in protoplanetary disks of eruptive stars

Aims: Luminosity bursts in young FU Orionis-type stars warm up the surrounding disks of gas and dust, thus inflicting changes on their morphological and chemical composition. In this work, we aim at studying the effects that such bursts may have on the spatial distribution of dust grain sizes and the corresponding spectral index in protoplanetary disks.Methods: We use the numerical hydrodynamics code FEOSAD, which simulates the co-evolution of gas, dust, and volatiles in a protoplanetary disk, taking dust growth and back reaction on gas into account. The dependence of the maximum dust size on the water ice mantles is explicitly … Read more »